Storage

Azure BLOB Storage and PowerShell: The Hard Way

Shared Key Authentication Scheme

In a previous post I covered my general love/hate affair with PowerShell; particularly with respect to the Microsoft Cloud.  For the majority of you than can not be bothered to read, I expressed a longstanding grudge against the Azure Cmdlets, rooted in the Switch-AzureMode fiasco.  As an aside, those of you enjoying the Azure Stack technical previews may notice as similar problem arising with  'AzureRM Profile', but I digress. More importantly, there was a general theme of understanding the abstractions placed in front of you as an IT professional.   By now, most of you should be familiar with the OAuth Bearer tokens used throughout the Microsoft cloud.  They are nearly ubiquitous, with the exception of a few services, most importantly storage.  The storage service is authenticated with a Shared Key Authentication or a Shared Access Signature. I will be focusing on the former.

Anatomy of the Signature

The Authentication header of HTTP requests backing the Azure Storage Services take the following form:

Authorization: SharedKey <Storage Account Name>:<AccessSignature>

The access signature is an HMAC 256 encoded string (Signature) which is constructed mostly of the components of the backing HTTP request. The gritty details are (somewhat) clearly detailed at MSDN, but for example the string to be encoded for getting the list of blobs in a container, looks something like this.


GET
x-ms-date:Mon, 08 May 2017 23:28:20 GMT x-ms-version:2016-05-31 /nosaashere/certificates comp:list restype:container

Let's examine the properties of a request for creating a BLOB Snapshot.

GET https://nosaashere.blob.core.windows.net/nosaashere/managedvhds/Provisioned.vhdx?comp=snapshot

Canonical Resource comp:snapshot Canonical Resource Query

PUT VERB x-ms-date:Mon, 08 May 2017 23:28:21 GMT Canonical Date Header x-ms-version:2016-05-31 Canonical Header /nosaashere/managedvhds/Provisioned.vhdx

A more advanced request (like this example for appending data to a Page BLOB) will show how additional headers come into scope as we include an MD5 Hash to verify the content, a content-length, and other required API headers.


PUT
4096000
32qczJv1wUlqnJPQRdBUzw==
x-ms-blob-type:PageBlob
x-ms-date:Mon, 08 May 2017 23:28:39 GMT
x-ms-page-write:Update x-ms-range:bytes=12288000-16383999
x-ms-version:2016-05-31 /nosaashere/managedvhds/Provisioned.vhdx comp:page

The general idea is the verb, standard and custom request headers, canonical headers, canonical resource and query are presented as a newline delimited string.  This string is encoded using the HMAC256 algorithm with the storage account key.  This base64 encoded string is used for crafting the Authorization header.  The Authorization header is passed with the other headers used to sign the request.  If the server is able to match the signature, the request is authenticated.

Putting this in some PoSh

First things first, we need to generate the string to sign.  This function will take arguments for the desired HTTP request (URI, Verb, Query, Headers) parameters and create the previously described string.


Function GetTokenStringToSign
{
    [CmdletBinding()]     
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $false,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)]
        [ValidateSet('GET','PUT','DELETE')]
        [string]$Verb="GET",
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)]
        [System.Uri]$Resource,
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $false,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)]
        [long]$ContentLength,
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $false,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)]
        [String]$ContentLanguage,
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $false,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)]
        [String]$ContentEncoding,
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $false,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)]
        [String]$ContentType,
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $false,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)]
        [String]$ContentMD5,
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $false,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)]
        [long]$RangeStart,
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $false,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)]
        [long]$RangeEnd,[Parameter(Mandatory = $true,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)]
        [System.Collections.IDictionary]$Headers
    )

    $ResourceBase=($Resource.Host.Split('.') | Select-Object -First 1).TrimEnd("`0")
    $ResourcePath=$Resource.LocalPath.TrimStart('/').TrimEnd("`0")
    $LengthString=[String]::Empty
    $Range=[String]::Empty
    if($ContentLength -gt 0){$LengthString="$ContentLength"}
    if($RangeEnd -gt 0){$Range="bytes=$($RangeStart)-$($RangeEnd-1)"}

    $SigningPieces = @($Verb, $ContentEncoding,$ContentLanguage, $LengthString,$ContentMD5, $ContentType, [String]::Empty, [String]::Empty, [String]::Empty, [String]::Empty, [String]::Empty, $Range)
    foreach ($item in $Headers.Keys)
    {
        $SigningPieces+="$($item):$($Headers[$item])"
    }
    $SigningPieces+="/$ResourceBase/$ResourcePath"

    if ([String]::IsNullOrEmpty($Resource.Query) -eq $false)
    {
        $QueryResources=@{}
        $QueryParams=$Resource.Query.Substring(1).Split('&')
        foreach ($QueryParam in $QueryParams)
        {
            $ItemPieces=$QueryParam.Split('=')
            $ItemKey = ($ItemPieces|Select-Object -First 1).TrimEnd("`0")
            $ItemValue = ($ItemPieces|Select-Object -Last 1).TrimEnd("`0")
            if($QueryResources.ContainsKey($ItemKey))
            { 
                $QueryResources[$ItemKey] = "$($QueryResources[$ItemKey]),$ItemValue"    
            }
            else
            {
                $QueryResources.Add($ItemKey, $ItemValue)
            }
        }
        $Sorted=$QueryResources.Keys|Sort-Object
        foreach ($QueryKey in $Sorted)
        {
            $SigningPieces += "$($QueryKey):$($QueryResources[$QueryKey])"
        }
    }

    $StringToSign = [String]::Join("`n",$SigningPieces)
    Write-Output $StringToSign 
}

Once we have the signature, it is a simple step create the required HMACSHA256 Hash using the storage account key. The following function takes the two arguments and returns the encoded signature.


Function EncodeStorageRequest
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true,ValueFromPipeline=$true,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true)]
        [String[]]$StringToSign,
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true)]
        [String]$SigningKey
    )
    PROCESS
    {         
        foreach ($item in $StringToSign)
        {
            $KeyBytes = [System.Convert]::FromBase64String($SigningKey)
            $HMAC = New-Object System.Security.Cryptography.HMACSHA256
            $HMAC.Key = $KeyBytes
            $UnsignedBytes = [System.Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetBytes($item)
            $KeyHash = $HMAC.ComputeHash($UnsignedBytes)
            $SignedString=[System.Convert]::ToBase64String($KeyHash)
            Write-Output $SignedString 
        }     
    }
}

Now that we have a signature it is time to pass it on to the storage service API, for the following examples we will focus on BLOB. Let's return to the first example, retrieving a list of the BLOBs in the certificates container of the nosaashere storage account. This only requires the date and version API headers. This request would take the format:

GET https://nosaashere.blob.core.windows.net/certificates?restype=container&amp;comp=list x-ms-date:Mon, 08 May 2017 23:28:20 GMT x-ms-version:2016-05-31

To create the signature we can use the above function.


$StorageAccountName='nosaashere'
$ContainerName='certificates'
$AccessKey="WMTyrXNLHL+DF4Gwn1HgqMrpl3s8Zp7ttUevo0+KN2adpByHaYhX4OBY7fLNyzw5IItopGDAr8iQDxrhoHHiRg=="
$BlobContainerUri="https://$StorageAccountName.blob.core.windows.net/$ContainerName?restype=container&comp=list"
$BlobHeaders= @{
    "x-ms-date"=[DateTime]::UtcNow.ToString('R');
     "x-ms-version"='2016-05-31'; 
}
$UnsignedSignature=GetTokenStringToSign -Verb GET -Resource $BlobContainerUri -AccessKey $AccessKey -Headers $BlobHeaders $StorageSignature=EncodeStorageRequest -StringToSign $UnsignedSignature -SigningKey $SigningKey 
#Now we should have a 'token' for our actual request. 
$BlobHeaders.Add('Authorization',"SharedKey $($StorageAccountName):$($StorageSignature)") 
$Result=Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $Uri -Headers $BlobHeaders –UseBasicParsing

If you make your call without using the -OutFile parameter you will find a weird looking string rather than the nice friendly XmlDocument you were expecting.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<EnumerationResults ServiceEndpoint="https://nosaashere.blob.core.windows.net/" ContainerName="certificates">
    <Blobs>
        <Blob>
            <Name>azurestackroot.as01.cer</Name>
            <Properties>
                <Last-Modified>Fri, 05 May 2017 20:31:33 GMT</Last-Modified>
                <Etag>0x8D493F5B8410E96</Etag>
                <Content-Length>1001</Content-Length>
                <Content-Type>application/octet-stream</Content-Type>
                <Content-Encoding />
                <Content-Language />
                <Content-MD5>O2/fcFtzb9R6alGEgXDZKA==</Content-MD5>
                <Cache-Control />
                <Content-Disposition />
                <BlobType>BlockBlob</BlobType>
                <LeaseStatus>unlocked</LeaseStatus>
                <LeaseState>available</LeaseState>
                <ServerEncrypted>false</ServerEncrypted>
            </Properties>
        </Blob>
        <Blob>
            <Name>azurestackroot.as02.cer</Name>
            <Properties>
                <Last-Modified>Wed, 03 May 2017 22:54:49 GMT</Last-Modified>
                <Etag>0x8D4927767174A24</Etag>
                <Content-Length>1001</Content-Length>
                <Content-Type>application/octet-stream</Content-Type>
                <Content-Encoding />
                <Content-Language />
                <Content-MD5>arONICHXLfRUr61IH/XHbw==</Content-MD5>
                <Cache-Control />
                <Content-Disposition />
                <BlobType>BlockBlob</BlobType>
                <LeaseStatus>unlocked</LeaseStatus>
                <LeaseState>available</LeaseState>
                <ServerEncrypted>false</ServerEncrypted>
            </Properties>
        </Blob>
        <Blob>
            <Name>azurestackroot.as03.cer</Name>
            <Properties>
                <Last-Modified>Wed, 15 Mar 2017 19:43:50 GMT</Last-Modified>
                <Etag>0x8D46BDB9AB84CFD</Etag>
                <Content-Length>1001</Content-Length>
                <Content-Type>application/octet-stream</Content-Type>
                <Content-Encoding />
                <Content-Language />
                <Content-MD5>sZZ30o/oMO57VMfVR7ZBGg==</Content-MD5>
                <Cache-Control />
                <Content-Disposition />
                <BlobType>BlockBlob</BlobType>
                <LeaseStatus>unlocked</LeaseStatus>
                <LeaseState>available</LeaseState>
                <ServerEncrypted>false</ServerEncrypted>
            </Properties>
        </Blob>
        <Blob>
            <Name>azurestackroot.as04.cer</Name>
            <Properties>
                <Last-Modified>Wed, 26 Apr 2017 22:45:41 GMT</Last-Modified>
                <Etag>0x8D48CF5F7534F4B</Etag>
                <Content-Length>1001</Content-Length>
                <Content-Type>application/octet-stream</Content-Type>
                <Content-Encoding />
                <Content-Language />
                <Content-MD5>rnkI6VPz9i1pXOick4qDSw==</Content-MD5>
                <Cache-Control />
                <Content-Disposition />
                <BlobType>BlockBlob</BlobType>
                <LeaseStatus>unlocked</LeaseStatus>
                <LeaseState>available</LeaseState>
                <ServerEncrypted>false</ServerEncrypted>
            </Properties>
        </Blob>
    </Blobs>
    <NextMarker />
</EnumerationResults>

What, pray tell is this  ? In a weird confluence of events there is a long standing 'issue' with the Invoke-RestMethod and Invoke-WebRequest Cmdlets with the UTF-8 BOM. Luckily, .Net has lots of support for this stuff. Generally, most people just use the OutFile parameter and pipe it along to the Get-Content Cmdlet. If you are like me, we'll look for the UTF-8 preamble and strip it from the string.


$UTF8ByteOrderMark=[System.Text.Encoding]::Default.GetString([System.Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetPreamble())
if($Result.StartsWith($UTF8ByteOrderMark,[System.StringComparison]::Ordinal))
{
    $Result=$Result.Remove(0,$UTF8ByteOrderMark.Length)
}
[Xml]$EnumerationResult=$Result

Now you'll see something you should be able to work with:


PS C:\Users\chris> $ResultXml.EnumerationResults
ServiceEndpoint                           ContainerName Blobs NextMarker
---------------                           ------------- ----- ----------
https://nosaashere.blob.core.windows.net/ certificates Blobs
PS C:\Users\chris> $ResultXml.EnumerationResults.Blobs.Blob
Name                    Properties
----                    ----------
azurestackroot.as01.cer Properties 
azurestackroot.as02.cer Properties 
azurestackroot.as03.cer Properties
azurestackroot.as04.cer Properties

All storage service requests return a good deal of information in the response headers.  Enumeration style operations , like the previous example return the relevant data in the response body.  Many operations, like retrieving container or BLOB metadata return only relevant data in the response headers.  Let’s modify our previous request, noting the change in the query parameter.  You will also need to use the Invoke-WebRequest Cmdlet (or your other favorite method) so that you can access the response headers.


$BlobContainerUri="https://$StorageAccountName.blob.core.windows.net/$ContainerName?restype=container&comp=metadata"
$BlobHeaders= @{ "x-ms-date"=[DateTime]::UtcNow.ToString('R'); "x-ms-version"='2016-05-31'; }
$UnsignedSignature=GetTokenStringToSign -Verb GET -Resource $BlobContainerUri `
    -AccessKey $AccessKey -Headers $BlobHeaders $StorageSignature=EncodeStorageRequest `
    -StringToSign $UnsignedSignature -SigningKey $SigningKey
$BlobHeaders.Add('Authorization',"SharedKey $($StorageAccountName):$($StorageSignature)")
$Response=Invoke-WebRequest -Uri $Uri -Headers $BlobHeaders –UseBasicParsing
$ContainerMetadata=$Response.Headers

We should have the resulting metadata key-value pairs present in the form x-ms-meta-<Key Name>.


C:\Users\chris> $ContainerMetaData
Key                      Value
---                      ----- 
Transfer-Encoding        chunked
x-ms-request-id          5f15423e-0001-003d-066d-ca0167000000
x-ms-version             2016-05-31
x-ms-meta-dispo          12345
x-ms-meta-stuff          test
Date                     Thu, 11 May 2017 15:41:16 GMT
ETag                     "0x8D4954F4245F500"
Last-Modified            Sun, 07 May 2017 13:45:01 GMT
Server                   Windows-Azure-Blob/1.0 Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0

Where to go from here?

With the authentication scheme in hand, you can now access the all of the storage service. This includes creating snapshots, uploading and downloading files. If you are not inclined to do things the hard way, feel free to check out a module supporting most of the BLOB service functionality on the Powershell Gallery or GitHub.

How to calculate Azure VHDs used space

powershell.jpg

One of the most hotly topic in the Azure world, is estimate how much storage is currently used by deployed VMs. I have intentionally used the word "used" and not allocated because in Azure, when VHDs are stored a Standard Storage Account, they're like "thin" or dynamically disk if you prefer, you aren't really using all the allocated space and Azure portal confirms this. Below image shows how an Azure VHD of 127 GB used as OS disk is viewed from a Windows VM

Below image shows how Azure portal calculate usage space for above disk

For reporting and billing reason, you may need to get these information for all VMs deployed in a specific subscription.

This article will show how to retrieve these information for VHDs stored in both Standard Account and Premium Account.

A little of Azure theory..

Standard Storage Account:

When a new Azure Storage Account is created, by default, some hidden tables are created and one of these is the "$MetricsCapacityBlob". This table shows blobs capacity values.

Note: There others hidden tables which contains other info related to an Azure Storage Account like its transactions.

Premium Storage Account:

From Microsoft Web Site: "Billing for a premium storage disk/blob depends on the provisioned size of the disk/blob. Azure maps the provisioned size (rounded up) to the nearest premium storage disk option as specified in the table given in the Scalability and Performance Targets when using Premium Storage section. Each disk will map to one of the the supported provisioned sizes and will be billed accordingly. Billing for any provisioned disk is prorated hourly using the monthly price for the Premium Storage offer. For example, if you provisioned a P10 disk and deleted it after 20 hours, you are billed for the P10 offering prorated to 20 hours. This is regardless of the amount of actual data written to the disk or the IOPS/throughput used."

From a reporting point of view, this mean that the size of a deployed VHD matches the allocated space and you're billed for its size "regardless of the amount of actual data written to the disk or the IOPS/throughput used".

Before to start to write some PowerShell code, it's required to prepare your workstation to run the Azure Storage Report:

  • If OS is older then Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10, then it's required to download and install PowerShell 5.0 from here
  • Install ReportHTML module from PowerShell Gallery: Open a PowerShell console as administrator and execute the following code

[powershell]

Install-Module -Name ReportHTML

[/powershell]

Let's begin to write some PowerShell code

Note: Most of the below functions come from Get Billable Size of Windows Azure Blobs (w/Snapshots) in a Container or Account script developed by the Windows Azure Product Team Scripts. Their code has been updated to work with latest Azure PowerShell module and support script purpose

Open a PowerShell editor and create a new file called Module-Azure.ps1

This file will contain all functions invoked by the main script

[powershell] function global:Connect-Azure {

Login-AzureRmAccount

$subName = Get-AzureRmSubscription | select SubscriptionName | Out-GridView -Title "Select a subscription" -OutputMode Single | select -ExpandProperty SubscriptionName

Select-AzureRmSubscription -SubscriptionName $subName

$global:azureSubscription = Get-AzurermSubscription -SubscriptionName $subName

}

function global:Calculate-BlobSpace {

param( # The name of the storage account to enumerate. [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)] [string]$StorageAccountName ,

# The name of the storage container to enumerate. [Parameter(Mandatory = $false)] [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()] [string]$ContainerName,

# The name of the storage account resource group. [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)] [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()] [string] $StorageAccountRGName )

# Following modifies the Write-Verbose behavior to turn the messages on globally for this session $VerbosePreference = "Continue"

$storageAccount = Get-AzureRmStorageAccount -ResourceGroupName $StorageAccountRGName -Name $StorageAccountName -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

if ($storageAccount -eq $null) { throw "The storage account specified does not exist in this subscription." }

# Instantiate a storage context for the storage account. $storagePrimaryKey = ((Get-AzureRmStorageAccountKey -ResourceGroupName $StorageAccountRGName -Name $StorageAccountName)[0]).Value

$storageContext = New-AzureStorageContext -StorageAccountName $StorageAccountName -StorageAccountKey $storagePrimaryKey

# Get a list of containers to process. $containers = New-Object System.Collections.ArrayList if ($ContainerName.Length -ne 0) { $container = Get-AzureStorageContainer -Context $storageContext ` -Name $ContainerName -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue | ForEach-Object { $containers.Add($_) } | Out-Null } else { Get-AzureStorageContainer -Context $storageContext -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue | ForEach-Object { $containers.Add($_) } | Out-Null }

# Calculate size. $sizeInBytes = 0 if ($containers.Count -gt 0) { $containers | ForEach-Object { $result = Get-ContainerBytes $_.CloudBlobContainer $sizeInBytes += $result.containerSize Write-Verbose ("Container '{0}' with {1} blobs has a size of {2:F2}MB." -f ` $_.CloudBlobContainer.Name, $result.blobCount, ($result.containerSize / 1MB)) } foreach ($container in $containers) {

$result = Get-ContainerBytes $container.CloudBlobContainer

$sizeInBytes += $result.containerSize

Write-Verbose ("Container '{0}' with {1} blobs has a size of {2:F2}MB." -f $container.CloudBlobContainer.Name, $result.blobCount, ($result.containerSize / 1MB)) }

$sizeInGB = [math]::Round($sizeInBytes / 1GB)

return $sizeInGB } else { Write-Warning "No containers found to process in storage account '$StorageAccountName'."

$sizeInGB = 0

return $sizeInGB } }

function global:Get-BlobBytes { param ( [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)] [Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Commands.Common.Storage.ResourceModel.AzureStorageBlob]$Blob)

# Base + blob name $blobSizeInBytes = 124 + $Blob.Name.Length * 2

# Get size of metadata $metadataEnumerator = $Blob.ICloudBlob.Metadata.GetEnumerator() while ($metadataEnumerator.MoveNext()) { $blobSizeInBytes += 3 + $metadataEnumerator.Current.Key.Length + $metadataEnumerator.Current.Value.Length }

if ($Blob.BlobType -eq [Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage.Blob.BlobType]::BlockBlob) { $blobSizeInBytes += 8 $Blob.ICloudBlob.DownloadBlockList() | ForEach-Object { $blobSizeInBytes += $_.Length + $_.Name.Length } } else { $Blob.ICloudBlob.GetPageRanges() | ForEach-Object { $blobSizeInBytes += 12 + $_.EndOffset - $_.StartOffset } }

return $blobSizeInBytes }

function global:Get-ContainerBytes { param ( [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)] [Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage.Blob.CloudBlobContainer]$Container)

# Base + name of container $containerSizeInBytes = 48 + $Container.Name.Length * 2

# Get size of metadata $metadataEnumerator = $Container.Metadata.GetEnumerator() while ($metadataEnumerator.MoveNext()) { $containerSizeInBytes += 3 + $metadataEnumerator.Current.Key.Length + $metadataEnumerator.Current.Value.Length }

# Get size for Shared Access Policies $containerSizeInBytes += $Container.Permission.SharedAccessPolicies.Count * 512

# Calculate size of all blobs. $blobCount = 0 $blobs = Get-AzureStorageBlob -Context $storageContext -Container $Container.Name foreach ($blobItem in $blobs) { #$blobItem | Get-Member

$containerSizeInBytes += Get-BlobBytes $blobItem

$blobCount++

}

return @{ "containerSize" = $containerSizeInBytes; "blobCount" = $blobCount } }

function global:ListBlobCapacity([System.Array]$arr, $StgAccountName, $stgAccountRGName) {

$Delimiter = ','

$Today = Get-Date

$storageAccountKey = ((Get-AzureRmStorageAccountKey -ResourceGroupName $stgAccountRGName -Name $StgAccountName)[0]).Value

$StorageCtx = New-AzureStorageContext –StorageAccountName $StgAccountName –StorageAccountKey $StorageAccountKey

$metrics = Get-AzureStorageServiceMetricsProperty -Context $StorageCtx -ServiceType "Blob" -MetricsType Hour -ErrorAction "SilentlyContinue"

# if storage account has Monitoring turned on, get the Capacity for the configured nbr of Retention Days if ( $metrics.MetricsLevel -ne "None" ) { $RetentionDays = $metrics.RetentionDays if ( $RetentionDays -eq $null -or $RetentionDays -eq '' ) { $RetentionDays = 0 } $table = GetTableReference $StgAccountName $StorageAccountKey '$MetricsCapacityBlob' # loop over days for( $d = $RetentionDays; $d -ge 0; $d = $d - 1) {

$date = (Get-Date $Today.AddDays(-$d) -format 'yyyyMMdd')

$partitionKey = $date + "T0000"

$result = $table.Execute([Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage.Table.TableOperation]::Retrieve($partitionKey, "data")) if ( $result.HttpStatusCode -eq "200") { $arr += CreateRowObject $StgAccountName (Get-Date $Today.AddDays(-$d)).ToString("d") } } } return $arr }

function global:GetBlobsCurrentCapacity($StgAccountName, $stgAccountRGName) {

$Delimiter = ','

$Today = Get-Date

$storageAccountKey = ((Get-AzureRmStorageAccountKey -ResourceGroupName $stgAccountRGName -Name $StgAccountName)[0]).Value

$StorageCtx = New-AzureStorageContext –StorageAccountName $StgAccountName –StorageAccountKey $StorageAccountKey

$metrics = Get-AzureStorageServiceMetricsProperty -Context $StorageCtx -ServiceType "Blob" -MetricsType Hour -ErrorAction "SilentlyContinue"

# if storage account has Monitoring turned on, get the Capacity for the configured nbr of Retention Days if ( $metrics.MetricsLevel -ne "None" ) { $table = GetTableReference $StgAccountName $StorageAccountKey '$MetricsCapacityBlob'

$date = (Get-Date $Today.AddDays(-1) -format 'yyyyMMdd')

$partitionKey = $date + "T0000"

$result = $table.Execute([Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage.Table.TableOperation]::Retrieve($partitionKey, "data"))

if ( $result.HttpStatusCode -eq "200") { $rowObj = CreateRowObject $StgAccountName (Get-Date $Today.AddDays(-1)).ToString("d") }

}

return $rowObj }

# setup access to Azure Table $TableName function global:GetTableReference($StgAccountName, $StorageAccountKey, $TableName) { $accountCredentials = New-Object "Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage.Auth.StorageCredentials" $StgAccountName, $StorageAccountKey $storageAccount = New-Object "Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage.CloudStorageAccount" $accountCredentials, $true $tableClient = $storageAccount.CreateCloudTableClient() $table = $tableClient.GetTableReference($TableName) return $table }

function global:CreateRowObject($StgAccountName, $DateTime) { $row = New-Object System.Object $row | Add-Member -type NoteProperty -name "StorageAccountName" -Value $StgAccountName $row | Add-Member -type NoteProperty -name "DateTime" -Value $DateTime foreach( $key in $result.Result.Properties.Keys ) { $val = $result.Result.Properties[$key].PropertyAsObject

if ( $Delimiter -eq ",") { $val = $val -replace ",","." } $row | Add-Member -type NoteProperty -name $key -Value $val } return $row }

function global:get-PremiumBlobGBSize { param ( [Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Commands.Common.Storage.ResourceModel.AzureStorageBlob] $blobobj )

$blobGBSize = [math]::Truncate(($blobObj.Length / 1GB))

return $blobGBSize

}

[/powershell]

Some comments:

  • All functions have been declared as global to be invoked from main script if required
  • Connect-Azure: Allow to select the Azure subscription against which execute reporting script and establish a connection
  • Calculate-BlobSpace: This is the function invoked by the main script which returns the sum of the spaces allocated to VHDs for a given Standard Storage Account
  • Get-PremiumBlobGBSize:  This is the function invoked by the main script which returns the sum of the spaces allocated to VHDs for a given Premium Storage Account

Now save Module-Azure.ps1 and in the same directory where it has been saved, create a new PowerShell file called "Generate-AzureReport.ps1". This will be the main file which will invoke Module-Azure functions.

Open Generate-AzureReport.ps1 with a PowerShell editor and paste the following code:

 

[powershell]

$ScriptDir = $PSScriptRoot

Write-Host "Current script directory is $ScriptDir"

Set-Location -Path $ScriptDir

.\module-azure.ps1

Connect-Azure

if (!(get-module ReportHTML)) { if (!( get-module -ListAvailable)) { write-host "Please Install ReportHTML module from PowerShell Gallery" } else { Write-Host "Importing Report-HTML module"

Import-Module ReportHTML } } else { Write-Host "Report-HTML module is already installed" }

$subname = $azureSubscription.SubscriptionName

$billingReportFolder = "C:\temp\billing"

if ( !(test-path $billingReportFolder) ) { New-Item $billingReportFolder -ItemType Directory }

# Analyzing Standard Storage Account Consumptions from Azure Storage Hiden Table $MetricsCapacityBlob

$sa = Find-AzureRmResource -ResourceType Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts | Where-Object {$_.Sku.tier -ne "Premium" }

$saConsumptions = @()

foreach ($saItem in $sa) { $blobObj = GetBlobsCurrentCapacity -StgAccountName $saItem.Name -stgAccountRGName $saItem.ResourceGroupName

$blobCapacityGB = [math]::Truncate(($blobObj.Capacity / 1GB))

$blobSpaceItem = '' | select StorageAccountName,Allocated_GB

$blobSpaceItem.StorageAccountName = $saItem.Name

$blobSpaceItem.Allocated_GB = $blobCapacityGB

$saConsumptions += $blobSpaceItem

}

$saPremium = Find-AzureRmResource -ResourceType Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts | Where-Object {$_.Sku.tier -eq "Premium" }

$saPremiumUsage = @()

foreach ($saPremiumItem in $saPremium) { $storageAccountKey = ((Get-AzureRmStorageAccountKey -ResourceGroupName $saPremiumItem.ResourceGroupName -Name $saPremiumItem.Name)[0]).Value

$StorageCtx = New-AzureStorageContext –StorageAccountName $saPremiumItem.Name –StorageAccountKey $StorageAccountKey

$containers = Get-AzureStorageContainer -Context $StorageCtx

$saPremiumUsageItem = '' | select StorageAccountName,Allocated_GB

$saPremiumUsageItem.StorageAccountName = $saPremiumItem.Name

$saPremiumUsageItem.Allocated_GB = 0

foreach ($container in $containers) { $blobs = Get-AzureStorageBlob -Context $StorageCtx -Container $container.Name

foreach ($blobItem in $blobs) { $blobsize = get-PremiumBlobGBSize ($blobItem)

$saPremiumUsageItem.Allocated_GB = $saPremiumUsageItem.Allocated_GB + $blobsize } }

$saPremiumUsage += $saPremiumUsageItem

}

# Calculate Totals

$saConsumptionsTotal = 0

foreach ($saConsumptionsItem in $saConsumptions) { $saConsumptionsTotal = $saConsumptionsTotal + $saConsumptionsItem.Allocated_GB }

$saPremiumUsageTotal = 0

foreach ($saPremiumUsageItem in $saPremiumUsage) { $saPremiumUsageTotal = $saPremiumUsageTotal + $saPremiumUsageItem.Allocated_GB }

# Generate Reports

$Rpt = @()

$TitleText = "Azure Usage Report "

$Rpt += Get-HTMLOpenPage -TitleText $TitleText -LeftLogoName "sample"

##

$Rpt += Get-HtmlContentOpen -HeaderText "Standard Storage Accounts Consumptions (GBs)"

$saConsumptionsTableStyle = Set-TableRowColor ($saConsumptions | Sort-Object -Property StorageAccountName) -Alternating

$Rpt += Get-HTMLContentTable ($saConsumptionsTableStyle) -Fixed

$Rpt += Get-HtmlContentClose

##

$Rpt += Get-HtmlContentOpen -HeaderText "Total of Standard Storage space allocated on Azure"

$Rpt += Get-HTMLContentText -Heading "Total (GB)" -Detail "$saConsumptionsTotal"

$Rpt += Get-HtmlContentClose

##

if ( $saPremiumUsage -ne $null) {

$Rpt += Get-HtmlContentOpen -HeaderText "Premium Storage Accounts Consumptions (GBs)"

$saPremiumUsageTableStyle = Set-TableRowColor ($saPremiumUsage | Sort-Object -Property StorageAccountName) -Alternating

$Rpt += Get-HTMLContentTable ($saPremiumUsageTableStyle) -Fixed

$Rpt += Get-HtmlContentClose

} ##

$Rpt += Get-HtmlContentOpen -HeaderText "Total of Premium Storage space allocated on Azure"

$Rpt += Get-HTMLContentText -Heading "Total (GB)" -Detail "$saPremiumUsageTotal "

$Rpt += Get-HtmlContentClose

##

$Rpt += Get-HTMLClosePage

$date = Get-Date -Format yyyy.MM.dd.hh.mm

$reportName = $subname + "_" + $date

Write-Host "Output folder is: C:\temp\Billing"

Write-Host "Report file name is : " $reportName

$file = Save-HTMLReport -ReportContent $rpt -ShowReport -ReportPath "C:\temp\Billing" -ReportName $reportName

[/powershell]

Save it

Some comments:

  • Line 7 execute Module-Azure, making available its functions
  • Line 9 invoke Connect-Azure function which is declared in Module-Azure as global
  • From Line 12 to 28 it's checked if ReportHTML is installed
  • Line 42 all Standard Storage Account available in the selected subscription are retrieved
  • From Line 44 to Line 60, VHDs allocated space stored in Standard Storage Account is calculated
  • Line 62 all Premium Storage Account available in the selected subscription are retrieved
  • From Line 64 to Line 95, VHDs allocated space stored in Premium Storage Account is calculated
  • From Line 97 to Line 112, sum of all Standard Storage Accounts and of all Premium Storage Account is calculated
  • From Line 115 to Line 168, report is formatted in HTML using ReportHTML functions
  • Line 174 save report in the default location and open default browser to show it

It's time to run the script and getting some reports !!!

From PowerShell editor or from a PowerShell console, run Generate-AzureReport.ps1

Provide Azure credentials

Select target Azure subscription and click on OK button

Sample of Azure Report

Sample of PowerShell output console

Note:

  • Output folder is the folder path where report has been saved
  • Report file name is report name

Thanks for your patience.  Any feedback is  appreciated